Here i give you Study Note on Forging with video i think it should understand better than anything.
<>Forging is perhaps oldest metal working process and was known even during prehistoric days when metallic tools were made by heating and hammering.
<>Forging is basically involves plastic deformation of material between two dies to achieve desired configuration. Depending upon complexity of the part
forging is carried out as open die forging and closed die forging.
<>In open die forging, the metal is compressed by repeated blows by a mechanical hammer and shape is manipulated manually.
<>In closed die forging, the desired configuration is obtained by squeezing the workpiece between two shaped and closed dies.
<>On squeezing the die cavity gets completely filled and excess material comes out around the periphery of the die as flash which is later trimmed.
<>Press forging and drop forging are two popular methods in closed die forging.
<>In press forging the metal is squeezed slowly by a hydraulic or mechanical press and component is produced in a single closing of die, hence the dimensional accuracy is much better than drop forging.
<>Both open and closed die forging processes are carried out in hot as well as in cold state.
In forging favorable grain orientation of metal is obtained