What is a Standardization and Product specification in Engg?

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What is a Standardization and Product specification in Engg?

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Modern systems are increasingly becoming more and more complex. A large number of mechanical components, controls, computers and communication subsystems are found interconnected in a complex system. Such a complex system can have many sources of errors. While some errors may be predictable, others are not due to their random nature. Predictable errors are those which can be foreseen based on the mathematical description of the system's dynamics. In order to minimize predictable errors, the use of standards is advocated.

The main purpose of standardization is to establish mandatory or obligatory norms for the design and production of machines so as to reduce variations in their types and grades and to achieve quality characteristics in raw materials, semi-finished and finished products.

Standardization, therefore, provides the following benefits.

(a). Better product quality , reliability, and longer life service.

(b) Mass production of components at low cost.

(c) Easy availability of parts for replacement and maintenance.

(d) Less time and effort required to manufacture.

(e) Reduction in variations in size and grades of an article.

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has standardized a number of items for the benefit of designers and users.

In the area of machine design, items of the following categories are standardized and this process is ongoing one.

(1) Engineering materials, their compositions, properties and method of testing.

(2) Rules of preparing drawings and use of symbols.

(3) Fits and tolerances for various parts from assembly considerations.

(4) Dimensions and preferred sizes for various machine components, namely rivets, bolts, nuts, keys, couplings, ball and roller bearings and so on.

In standardization, the concept of preferred numbers helps to reduce unnecessary variations in sizes and grades of an article. Experience has shown that the general requirements of such a grading are mostly satisfied when it follows a geometrical series.


What is met by "engineering standards" in this criterion?

Why do we have standards and how did they come about?

Who enforces standards? How are standards established?

What general and field-specific guidance is there for engineering educators wanting to include engineering standards in their courses?

Discussion of engineering standards is going to colored by the different meaning standards will have to individual faculty. The interest in standards has been fueled by the “globalization” of the world economy – the need for companies to compete internationally - and the rapid growth in telecommunications and other high-tech areas.

Examples of product standards include fuel economy standards and airbag requirements both effecting the design of automobiles. Examples of process standards include standards for electronic data exchange. Standards are as important to doing business internationally as any treaty might have been in the past. Telecommunications companies are basically trying to take the politics from issues such as privacy in the electronic area and emphasize getting the benefits of the new economy into your community—and the only way to do that is if you agree upon a standard in the truest sense of the word.
The product design specification (PDS)


Specifications involve the formal statement of the required functions, features and performance of the product or process to be designed.

The product design specification is the formal specification of the product to be designed. It acts as the control for the total design activity because it sets the boundaries for the subsequent design.

The purpose of the PDS is to ensure that your design actually addresses your customer needs. This is essential if your product is to succeed.

The product design specification

(PDS) is a very important document in the design process as it contains all the information necessary for a design team to successfully produce a solution to the design problem.

A PDS splits the problem up into smaller categories to make it easier to consider the problem. The final document should fully document as unambiguously as possible all the requirements that a product must fulfil together with any constraints that may affect the product.

The actual or intended customer should be consulted as fully as possible while the PDS is being drawn up as their requirements are of paramount importance.

What is a Standardization and Product specification in Engg?



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